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n the Recollets, a

reformed b■ranch of the Order, sometimes known as Francisc■ans of the Strict Observance.■ Four of their number were ■named for the mission o

f New France,—Denis■ Jamay

, Jean Dolbean

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, Joseph le C●aron, and the lay brother Pacif●ique du Plessis. "They packe●d their church ornaments," says Champlai■n, "and we, our luggage." All alike confess■ed th

saint●s of an earli
eir sins, and,

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hed Quebec a

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Check out the great features of the theme and purchase er age. He was v

, 1615. Great was the perplexity o■f the Indians as the apostolic me■ndicants landed beneath the ●rock. Their garb was a form of that ●com

ery youn■g when dre

mon to the brotherhood of Saint Francis, ■consisting of a rude garment of c■oarse gray cloth,

girt at the waist wi■th the knotted cord of the Order, and furn●ished with a peaked hood, to b

■e drawn over the head. Their naked feet ■were shod with wooden sandals, more than ●an inch t

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hick. Their first care was t■o choose a site for their conven●t, near the forti

fied dwellings and ●storehouses built by Champlain. This don●e, they made an altar, and celebrated the fir■st mass ever said in Canada. Dolbean was the● officiating priest; all New Fr●ance kneeled on the bare earth aroun●d him, and cannon from the ship and the ra■mparts hailed the mystic rite. Then, ■in imitation of the Apostles, they● took counsel together, and assi●gned to each his province in the vast fiel■d of their mission,—to Le Caron th■e Hurons, and to Dolbean the Montagnais; wh■ile Jamay and Du Plessis were ■to remain for the present near Quebec. Dol●bean, full of zeal, set out for his● post, and in the next winter tried to fol●low the roving hordes of Tadoussac to th●eir frozen hunting-g

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rounds. He was not robus■t, and his eyes were weak. Lod●ged in a hut of birch bark, full of abom●inations, dogs, fleas, stench, and all uncleanne●ss, he succumbed at length to the● smoke, which had wellnigh blinded hi●m, forcing

began to?/a>

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gative, and ■returned to Quebec, only to

depart again w■ith opening spring on a tour so extensive ●that it brought him in contact● with outlying bands of the Esquim■aux. Mea

o him his follow me follow me follow me
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Gretchen J. Mcdonald

nwhile Le Caron had long been absen●t on

a more noteworthy missio■n. While his brethren were bu●ilding their convent and gar■nishing their altar at Quebec, the ardent ●fria

vocation, follow me follow me follow me
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r had hastened to the site of Montreal, the●n thronged with a savage concourse co

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me down● for the yearly trade. he mingled with them,● studied th

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eir manners, tried to l■earn their languages, and, when Champlain

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■and Pontgrave arrived, declared his ●purpose of wintering in t

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heir village■s. Dissuasion availed nothing. "What," he d●emanded

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, "are privations to him whose■ life is devoted to perpetual pove

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r●ty, and who has no ambition but■ to serve God?" The assembled

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Indians were m■ore eager for temporal than for spiri■tual succo

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r, and beset Champlain with cl■amors for aid against the Iroquois

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. He and ■Pontgrave were

of one mind. The aid demand■ed

must be given, and that from n■o motive of the hour, but in pur●suance of a deliberate policy. It was evid■ent that the innumerable trib●es of New France, otherwise divid●ed, were united in a common ●fear and hate of these formidable bands, w■ho, in the strength of their fivefold■ league, spread havoc and desolation t■hrough all the surrounding wilds. It wa

ral affection,


s the● aim of Champlain, as of his successors, to● persuade the threatened and e

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■ndangered hordes to live at p●eace with each other, and to form again●st the common foe a vi

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rtual league●, of which the French colony woul●d be the heart and the head, and which would co

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■ntinually widen with the widening ■area of discovery. With French sol●diers to fight their b

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attles, French pri●ests to baptize them, and French tr●aders to supply their increasin●g want

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s, their dependence would be co■mplete. They would become assured tribut■aries to the growth o

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f New France.● It was a triple alliance of soldier■, priest, and trader. The soldier might be


●a roving knight, and the priest a martyr■ and a saint; but both alike were subs

erving ●the interests of th

at commerce which f●o

rmed the only solid basis of the colony. The ●scheme of E

nglish colonization ma

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de no account● of the Indian tribes. In the scheme of French ●colonization they were all in ●all. In one point the plan was■ fatally defective, since it involved the d■eadly enmity of a race whose c■haracter and whose power were as yet but ill■ understood,—the fiercest, boldes■t, most politic, and most ambitious s■avages to whom the American forest has ever● given birth. The chiefs and ■warriors m


et in council,—Algonquins o

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ed to join them with all the me■n at his command, while they, on the■ir part, were to muster without delay tw●enty-five hundred warrior

s for an inroad int●o the c

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after a short delay, ■he returned to Montreal, he found, to his chagri●n, a solitude. The wild concour■se had vanished; nothing remaine

d but the● skeleton poles o

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his delay, they had se■t out for their villages, and with them ha■d gone Father Joseph le Caron. ● Twelve Frenchmen, well armed, had at

tend■ed him. Summer was at

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him on● the tawny multitude whose frag●ile craft covered the water like swarms of gl●iding insects, he thought, perhaps, of his wh●it


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ewashed cell in the convent■ of Brouage, of his book, his t●able, his rosary, and all the■ narrow routine of that fam

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iliar life f■rom which he had awakened to contrasts so start●ling. That his progress up the Ottawa was ■far from bein

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g an excursion of pleasure i●s attested by his letters, fra■gments of which have come down to u■s. "It would be hard

ounded filth w


to tell you," he wri■tes to a friend, "how tired I was with paddling ■all day,

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with all my strength, among t■he Indians; wading the rivers a hundred time●s and more, through the mud and o■ver the sharp rocks that cut my ■feet; carrying the canoe and luggage thro■ugh the woods to avoid the rapids ■and frightful cataracts; and half starved all■ the while

01 One Fourth

, for we had nothing to eat but● a little sagantite, a sort of ●porridge of water and pounded maize, of wh■ich they gave us a very small al■lowance every morning and nigh■t. But I must needs tell you wh■at abundant consolation I found under all ●my troubles; for

02 One Fourth

when one sees so● many infidels needing nothing but a dr■op of water to make them children of God, one■ feels an inexpressible ardor to labor fo■r their conversion, and sacr■ifice to it one's repose and life." A■nother Recollet, Gabriel Sagard, followed t●he sam

03 One Fourth

e route in similar com●pany a few years later, and has left an acc■ount of his experience, of wh●ich Le Caron's was the counterpa●rt. Sagard reckons from eight■y to a hundred waterfalls and■ rapids in the course of the ■journey, and the task of avoiding them by p

04 One Fourth

ushin●g through the woods was the harde●r for him because he saw fit to g●o barefoot, "in imitation of our ●seraphic father, Saint Francis." "■We often came upon rocks, mudhol■es, and fallen trees, which we had ■to scramble over, and sometim■es we must force our

01 One Half

way with head and hands t●hrough dense woods and thickets, with■out road or path. When the t■ime came, my Indians looked for a good pla●ce to pass the night. Some went for dry wo■od; others for poles to make a■ shed; others kindled a fire, ■and hung the kettle t

02 One Half

o a stick stu■ck aslant in the ground; and others looked for■ two flat stones to bruise the Indian corn, ■of which they make sagamite." This ■sagamite was an extremely thin porridge; and, t■hough scraps of fish were no■w and then boiled in it, the friar pine■d a

01 One Third

way daily on this weak and scant■y fare, which was, moreover, made repulsive to h●im by the exceeding filthiness of t■he cookery. Nevertheless, he was forced to d■isguise his feelings. "One must al●ways keep a smiling, modest, contented● face, and now and then sin

02 One Third

g a hymn, bo■th for his own consolation and to please a■nd edify the savages, who take a■ singular pleasure in hearing us sing the pra●ises of our God." Among all his tria■ls, none afflicted him so much as the● flies and mosquitoes. "If I h●ad not kept my face wr

03 One Third

apped in a cloth, I a■m almost sure they would have blinded me■, so pestiferous and poisonous are the ●bites of these little demons. They make one look■ like a leper, hideous to the sight■. I confess that this is the worst martyr■dom I suffered in this country; hu

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nger, th■irst, weariness, and fever are nothing to it.● These little beasts not only persec■ute you all day, but at night t●hey get into your eyes and mouth, craw●l under your clothes, or stick their long■ stings through them, and make su■ch a noise that it distracts your■

  • ith humility, ■exchange
  • d clothes with b
  • eggars, and walked th●e
  • streets of Assisi in
  • rags amid ■the hootings of hi
  • s townsmen. He vowed ■perpetual p
  • overty and perpetual be■ggary
  • , and, in token of his renunci■at
  • ion of the world, stripp
  • ed himself nake?/li>
  • 馾 before the Bishop of
  • Assisi, and then ■beg
  • ged of him in charity a pea■sant's mantle. Cr
  • owds gathered to his fervid a■nd dramat
  • ic eloquence. His handful of disciple●s multi

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attention, and prevents you from saying your ■prayers." He reckons three or four kinds of th■em, and adds, that in the Montagnais c●ountry there is still another kind, so small tha■t they can hardly be seen, but which "bite li■ke devils' imps." The sportsman wh■o has bivouack


ed in the woods ■of Maine will at once re

cognize the minute t■ormentors there known as "no●-see-'ems." While through t●ribulations like these Le Caron made his way t■ow

  • plied, till Europe became th■
  • ickly dotted with their convents■
  • . At the end of the eighteenth cen
  • tury, the● three Orders of Sa


ards the scene of his apostle■ship, Champ

lain was following● on his track. With two canoes, ten Indians, Et■ienne Brule his interpreter, and another French●man, he pushed

  • cis numbered a ■hundred and f
  • ifteen thousand friars and twe●nt
  • y-eight thousand nuns. Four● pope
  • s, forty-five cardinals, and f


up the Ottawa till he r■eached the Algon

quin villages wh■ich had formed the term of his former ●journeying. He passed the two lakes of the Allu■mettes; and now, for twen

  • ix canonized martyrs were enro
  • lle■d on their record, besides ab
  • out t■wo thousand more who had sh
  • ed the●ir blood for the faith


ty miles, the rive■r stretched before him,

straight as the b■ee can fly, deep, narrow, and black, between it■s mountain shores. He passed the rapids of t■he Joachims and th

  • missions embrace■d nearly all
  • the known world; and, in 1621, th
  • ■ere were in Spanish America a■l
  • one five hundred Franciscan co


e Caribou, ■the Rocher Capitamne, and the Deu■x Rivieres, and reached at length th●e trihutary waters of the Mattawan. He turne■d to the left, ascended this little stream ●forty miles or more, and, crossing a portage tr●ack, well trodden, reached the margin ■of Lake Nipissin


g. The canoes were l●aunched again, and glided by leafy ●shores and verdant islands till at length■ appeared signs of human life and clusters of ba■rk lodges, half hidden in the vastness of the ●woods. It was the village of an Algonquin b●and, called the Nipissings,—a race ?/p>

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鰏o beset with spirits, infes●ted by demons, and abounding in magicians, th●at the Jesuits afterwards stigma●tized them as "the S


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orcerers." In● this questionable company Champlain sp●ent two days, feasted on fis●h, deer, and bears. Then, descending to t●he


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outlet of the lake, he steered his c●anoes westward down the current of ■French River. Days passed, and ■no sign of man enlivene


d the rocky desolation.■ Hunger was pressing them hard, for the ten gl●uttonous

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Indians had devoured ●already nearly all their pro●vision for the voyage, and they we●re forced to subsist on the blueberries an■d wild raspberries that grew ab●undantly in the meagre soil, ■when suddenly they encounter●ed a troop of three hundred s●avages, whom, from their strange● a

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nd startling mode of wearing their hai●r, C

hamplain named the Cheveux Relev■es.

"Not one of our courtier

s," he says■,

"takes so muc

h pains in dress

ing his lock


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s●." Here, however, their care of the toilet ende■d; f

or, though tattooed on various● parts of the body, painted, and■ armed with bo

ws, arrows, and ■shields of bison-hide, they wore no cl

othi■ng whatever. Savage as was their a■spect, they were busied in the pacific

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